Interdisciplinary Journal of e-Skills and Lifelong Learning (IJELL)

Online ISSN: 2375-2092  •  Print ISSN: 2375-2084

Published Articles


Volume 13, 2017

Fay Sudweeks
Table of Contents, IJELL, e-skills, lifelong learning
i - iii
Rachel Nave, Rakefet Ackerman, Yehudit Judy Dori
Aim/Purpose: These days educators are expected to integrate technological tools into classes. Although they acquire relevant skills, they are often reluctant to use these tools.

Background: We incorporated online forums for generating a Community of Inquiry (CoI) in a faculty development program. Extending the Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model with Assessment Knowledge a ...
community of inquiry, online forums, hands-on experience, TPACK, instruc-tional technology, teacher professional development
1 - 17
Dorcas E Krubu, Sandy Zinn, Genevieve C Hart
Aim/Purpose: The research work investigated the information seeking process of undergraduates in a specialised university in Nigeria, in the course of a group assignment.

Background: Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process (ISP) model is used as lens to reveal how students interact with information in the affective, cognitive and physical realms.

Methodology: Qualitative research methods were ...
information seeking process, information seeking, dialogue journaling, group assignment, analysis of assignment, specialised university
19 - 36
Kham Sila Ahmad, Jocelyn Armarego, Fay Sudweeks
Aim/Purpose: To develop a framework for utilizing Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) to assist non-native English migrant women to acquire English vocabulary in a non-formal learning setting.

Background: The women in this study migrated to Australia with varied backgrounds including voluntary or forced migration, very low to high levels of their first language (L1), low proficiency in Engl ...
MALL, migrant women, vocabulary, tablet, language app
37 - 57
Saeed Shariati, Jocelyn Armarego, Fay Sudweeks
Aim/Purpose: The research investigates the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on Iranian refugees’ settlement in Australia.

Background: The study identifies the issues of settlement, such as language, cultural and social differences.

Methodology: The Multi-Sited Ethnography (MSE), which is a qualitative methodology, has been used with a thematic analysis drawing on a seri ...
e-Skills, ICT, settlement, refugees
59 - 77
Scott D McDonald
Aim/Purpose: Students face many challenges improving their soft skills such as critical thinking. This paper offers one possible solution to this problem.

Background: This paper considers one method of enhancing critical thinking through a problem-solving game called the Coffee Shop. Problem-solving is a key component to critical thinking, and game-playing is one method of enhancing this throug ...
lesson delivery, blended learning, digital technology, learning outcomes, entrepreneurship, mixed methods, learning transfer, gamification
79 - 96

Volume 12, 2016

Estelle Taylor
Soft skills are becoming increasingly important and will be critical for success in the Information Systems profession. Employers complain about a lack in soft skills among graduates from tertiary education institutions. No agreement exists about what these skills actually are, which are of importance, and how acquiring these soft skills should be approached in higher education.
The aim of this ...
soft skills, higher education, information technology, industry
1 - 18
Maedeh Mosharraf
Personalization is one of the most expected features in the current educational systems. User modeling is supposed to be the first stage of this process, which may incorporate learning style as an important part of the model. Learning style, which is a non-stable characteristic in the case of children, differentiates students in learning preferences. This paper identifies a new hybrid method to in ...
Automatic detection, children learning style, hybrid method, MBTI, personality type
19 - 32
Stefanos Goumas, Symeon Symeonidis, Michail Salonidis
The purpose of this research is the exploration of the opinions and level of self-efficacy in the usage of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) of teachers in Greek pre-schools in the learning process and administration of nurseries. By using the term “usage and utilisation of ICTs in the learning process” we mean the utilisation of the capabilities that new technologies offer in an educa ...
ICT, educational process, use & development of ICT, self-efficacy
33 - 55
Sthephanny Moncada Linares, Andrea Carolina Díaz Romero
As a result of the rapid development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the growing interest in Internet-based tools for language classroom, it has become a pressing need for educators to locate, evaluate and select the most appropriate language-learning digital resources that foster more communicative and meaningful learning processes. Hence, this paper describes a mixed resear ...
Language-learning website, communicative approach, CALL evaluation, checklist, digital competence, knowing-how-to-do skill
57 - 93
Dalit Mor, Hagar Laks, Arnon Hershkovitz
In today’s job market, computer skills are part of the prerequisites for many jobs. In this paper, we report on a study of readiness to work with computers (the dependent variable) among unemployed women (N=54) after participating in a unique, web-supported training focused on computer skills and empowerment. Overall, the level of participants’ readiness to work with computers was much higher at t ...
Work readiness; working with computers; log-based variables; decision tree
95 - 112
Gwen Nugent, Amy Kohmetscher, Deana M. Namuth-Covert, John Guretzky Guretzky, Patrick Murphy, DoKyoung Lee
Learning objects originally developed for use in online learning environments can also be used to enhance face-to-face instruction. This study examined the learning impacts of online learning objects packaged into modules and used in different contexts for undergraduate education offered on campus at three institutions. A multi-case study approach was used, examining learning impacts across a vari ...
learning objects, online learning, instructional context, multimedia instruction, online modules
113 - 121
Silas Wandera, Natasha James-Waldon, Debbi Bromley, Zandra Henry
This paper provides an overview of the impact that social media has on the development of collaborative learning within a cohort environment in a doctoral program. The researchers surveyed doctoral students in an education program to determine how social media use has influenced the doctoral students. The study looked at the following areas: a) the ability of social media use to develop a collabor ...
Social media, Collaborative learning, Learning environment, Doctoral program, Cohort
123 - 143
Noa Aharony, Judit Bar-Ilan
MOOCs are open, online courses that use information technologies to enhance the learning experience and attract various people from the entire world. The current study uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), as well as personal characteristics such as learning strategies, cognitive appraisal, and Kuhlthau’s (1991) model of information seeking as theoretical bases for defining factors that may ...
MOOC, Technology Acceptance Model, learning strategies, cognitive appraisal
145 - 162
Nitza Geri, Ina Blau, Avner Caspi, Yoram M. Kalman, Vered Silber-Varod, Yoram Eshet-Alkalai
This preface presents the papers included in the eighth issue of the Interdisciplinary Journal of e-Skills and Lifelong Learning (IJELL) special series of selected Chais Conference best papers. The Chais Conference for the Study of Innovation and Learning Technologies: Learning in the Technological Era, is organized annually by the Research Center for Innovation in Learning Technologies, The Open ...
learning technologies, e-learning, technology integration in education, diffusion of innovation, human-computer interaction
163 - 168
Tal Berger-Tikochinski, Michal Zion, Ornit Spektor-Levy
This is a five-year study conducted with junior high school students studying in a 1:1-laptop program in order to test the effects of the program on various measures related to the students: their attitudes, motivation, perceived school norms, self-efficacy, and behavioral intention towards learning with laptops, according to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB).
These variables were tested at tw ...
one-to-one classrooms, personal laptops, motivation, self-efficacy, Theory of Planned Behavior
169 - 191
Adi Friedman, Ina Blau, Yoram Eshet-Alkalai
This study examined the phenomenon of academic dishonesty among university students. It was based on Pavela’s (1997) framework of types of academic dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, and facilitation) and distinguished between digital and “traditional”- analog dishonesty. The study analyzed cases of academic dishonesty offenses committed by students, as well as the reasons for academic ...
digital academic dishonesty, cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, facilitation, academic integrity in higher education, motivation for academic dishonesty, gender differences in penalties given for academic dishonesty
193 - 205
Ruti Gafni, Idan Nagar
CAPTCHA is one of the most common solutions to check if the user trying to enter a Website is a real person or an automated piece of software. This challenge-response test, implemented in many Internet Websites, emphasizes the gaps between accessibility and security on the Internet, as it poses an obstacle for the learning-impaired in the reading and comprehension of what is presented in the test. ...
CAPTCHA, cyber security, user experience, learning disabilities, dyslexia
207 - 223
Noa Shapira, Haggai Kupermintz, Yael Kali
This study examined a professional development program designed to support Civics teachers in their efforts to promote empathy among Israeli Jewish students towards Israeli Arabs. The design rationale for the program is that teachers should experience empathic processes themselves before supporting their students in such an endeavor and that meaningful empathic processes can occur online if activi ...
empathy, minority group, teacher professional development, teachers as designers, online learning community
225 - 246
Simona Holstein , Anat Cohen
The characteristics of successful MOOCs were explored in this study. Thousands of student reviews regarding five xMOOCs (Massive Open Online Course) in the fields of software, science, and management were extracted from the Coursetalk website and analyzed by quantitative and qualitative methods using the Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000) Community of Inquiry (CoI) model. The 14 characteristics ...
MOOC, online learning, lifelong learning, Community of Inquiry
247 - 266
Ina Blau, Nurit Benolol
Creative computing is one of the rapidly growing educational trends around the world. Previous studies have shown that creative computing can empower disadvantaged children and youth. At-risk youth tend to hold a negative view of self and perceive their abilities as inferior compared to “normative” pupils. The Implicit Theories of Intelligence approach (ITI; Dweck, 1999, 2008) suggests a way of ch ...
creative computing, creative coding, creative programming, scratch application, implicit theories of intelligence, constructionism, at-risk youth, normative high-school students
267 - 278
Orit Avidov Ungar, Alona Forkosh Baruch
ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in teacher education poses new challenges to faculty and students. This study was carried out to examine factors facilitating and hindering ICT implementation in teacher education institutes in Israel. Findings from our study, administered at two points in time, revealed that providing technological-pedagogical support to teacher educators and their ...
teacher educators, ICT Implementation, facilitating factors, hindering factors, colleges of education
279 - 296
Vered Silber-Varod, Yoram Eshet-Alkalai, Nitza Geri
The current rapid technological changes confront researchers of learning technologies with the challenge of evaluating them, predicting trends, and improving their adoption and diffusion. This study utilizes a data-driven discourse analysis approach, namely culturomics, to investigate changes over time in the research of learning technologies. The patterns and changes were examined on a corpus of ...
mapping topics in the domain of learning technologies, academic discourse of learning technologies, culturomics, quantitative text analysis, data-driven discourse analysis, word frequency analysis
297 - 313

Volume 11, 2015

Harjinder Singh Lallie
Campus discovery is an important feature of a university student induction process. Approaches towards campus discovery differ from course to course and can comprise guided tours that are often lengthy and uninspiring, or self-guided tours that run the risk of students failing to complete them. This paper describes a campus self-discovery induction game (Geospatial Crypto Reconnaissance) which aim ...
Integration; orientation; retention; campus discovery; induction games; induction
1 - 10
Rogério Rossi, Pollyana Notargiacomo Mustaro
Digital solutions have substantially contributed to the growth and dissemination of education. The distance education modality has been presented as an opportunity for worldwide students in many types of courses. However, projects of digital educational platforms require different expertise including knowledge areas such as pedagogy, psychology, computing, and digital technologies associated with ...
Online Education, Digital Educational Solution, Quality Models, eQETIC Model
11 - 23
Kham Sila Ahmad, Fay Sudweeks, Jocelyn Armarego
This paper reports on a case study of a group of six non-native English speaking migrant women’s experiences learning English vocabulary in a mobile assisted language learning (MALL) environment at a small community centre in Western Australia. A sociocultural approach to learning vocabulary was adopted in designing the MALL lessons that the women undertook. The women provided demographic informat ...
MALL, sociocultural approach, migrant women, vocabulary
25 - 45
Nicole A. Buzzetto-More , Robert Johnson, Muna Elobaid
Empowered by and tethered to ubiquitous technologies, the current generation of youth yearns for opportunities to engage in self-expression and information sharing online with personal disclosure no longer governed by concepts of propriety and privacy. This raises issues about the unsafe online activities of teens and young adults. The following paper presents the findings of a study examining the ...
Cyber awareness, Cyber Safety, Facebook, Internet Safety, Negative Consequences of Social Media, Oversharing, Privacy, Social Media, Social Media Safety, Web-Safety
47 - 66
Liat Eyal
This study attempts to present the variety of possible uses for iPads, in the learning process. The objective is to evaluate a unique implementation model that was tried out at a teacher training college in Israel. The methodology is based on a qualitative research paradigm. The findings show that students’ use the iPads in various contexts: (a) for ongoing personal use; (b) for planning lessons; ...
iPads in education, integrating tablets in classroom, iPads in Teacher Training, Taxonomy
67 - 84
Elizabeth Simão Carvalho
Teaching object-oriented programming to students in an in-classroom environment demands well-thought didactic and pedagogical strategies in order to guarantee a good level of apprenticeship. To teach it on a completely distance learning environment (e-learning) imposes possibly other strategies, besides those that the e-learning model of Open University of Portugal dictates. This article analyses ...
eLearning, student’s behavior, distance learning of programming language
85 - 99
Janine S Ramos, Letícia K Silva, Arnaldo Pinzan, Antonio C Rodrigues, Giédre Berretin-Felix
Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of distance learning courses for the purpose of interdisciplinary continuing education in Speech Pathology and Dentistry. Methods: The online course was made available on the Moodle platform. A total of 30 undergraduates participated in the study (15 from the Dentistry course and 15 from the Speech Pathology course). Their knowledge was evaluated before and a ...
Distance Learning, Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, Dentistry, Interdisciplinary Research
101 - 121
Shlomi Boutnaru, Arnon Hershkovitz
In recent years, schools (as well as universities) have added cyber security to their computer science curricula. This topic is still new for most of the current teachers, who would normally have a standard computer science background. Therefore the teachers are trained and then teaching their students what they have just learned. In order to explore differences in both populations’ learning, we c ...
cyber security, code metrics, software quality, software security, teachers’ learning, data mining
123 - 147
Nitza Geri, Ina Blau, Avner Caspi, Yoram M. Kalman, Vered Silber-Varod, Yoram Eshet-Alkalai
The seventh issue of the Interdisciplinary Journal of e-Skills and Lifelong Learning (IJELL- formerly Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects - IJELLO) special series includes a selection of best papers presented at the 10th Chais Conference for the Study of Innovation and Learning Technologies: Learning in the Technological Era. The Chais conference 2015 was held at The Open ...
learning technologies, e-learning, information and communication technology (ICT) integration in education, diffusion of innovation, human-computer interaction, digital competencies, e-skills, lifelong learning
149 - 157
Dorit Geifman , Daphne R Raban
Self-efficacy is essential to learning but what happens when learning is done as a result of a collective process? What is the role of individual self-efficacy in collective problem solving? This research examines the manifestation of self-efficacy in prediction markets that are configured as collective problem-solving platforms and whether self-efficacy of traders affects the collective outcome ...
collective problem-solving, self-efficacy, prediction markets, social influence
159 - 178
Yair Levy, Michelle M. Ramim
There is a growing interest in the assessment of tangible skills and competence. Specifically, there is an increase in the offerings of competency-based assessments, and some academic institutions are offering college credits for individuals who can demonstrate adequate level of competency on such assessments. An increased interest has been placed on competency-based computer simulations that can ...
competency-based projects in e-learning, simulations in e-learning, managerial skills enhancements, management skills in e-learning, self-reported skills
179 - 190
Noa Aharony, Miri Shonfeld
This study seeks to explore what factors influence students’ ICT use and web technology competence. The objectives of this study are the following: (a) To what extent do certain elements of Rogers’ (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DOI) explain students’ ICT use, (b) To what extent do personality characteristics derived from the Big Five approach explain students’ ICT use, and (c) To what ex ...
ICT use, Educational Technology students, Library and Information Science students, Exploratory study
191 - 207
Keren Sarah Levy, Yael Kali, Tali Tal
Implementing inquiry in the outdoors introduces many challenges for teachers, some of which can be dealt with using mobile technologies. For productive use of these technologies, teachers should be provided with the opportunity to develop relevant knowledge and practices. In a professional development (PD) program in this design-based research, 24 teachers were involved in adaptation of a learning ...
Teachers as Designers (TaD), mobile learning, teacher professional development (PD), TPACK, outdoor inquiry
209 - 235
Eli Merkel, Anat Cohen
Since the development of Open Educational Resources (OERs), different models regarding the usage of these resources in education have appeared in the literature. Wiley’s 4-Rs model is considered to be one of the leading models. Research based on Wiley’s model shows that using materials without making changes is the most common use. Compared to the extensive literature regarding OER usage in educat ...
OER, Open Educational Resources, instructional designers, training managers, corporate
237 - 256
Yehuda Peled, Ina Blau, Ronen Grinberg
Transforming a school from traditional teaching and learning to a one-to-one (1:1) classroom, in which a teacher and students have personal digital devices, inevitably requires changes in the way the teacher addresses her role. This study examined the implications of integrating 1:1 computing on teachers’ pedagogical perceptions and the classroom’s educational discourse. A change in pedagogical pe ...
one-to-one computing, 1:1, laptop integration in school, teachers’ pedagogical perceptions, teacher “folk psychology” and “folk pedagogy”, “the new learning ecology” framework, educational discourse in the classroom
257 - 271
Alona Forkosh Baruch, Arnon Hershkovitz, Rebecca P. Ang
Teacher-student relationships are vital for academic and social development of students, for teachers’ professional and personal development, and for having a supportive learning environment. In the digital age, these relationships can extend beyond bricks and mortar and beyond school hours. Specifically, these relationships are extended today while teachers and students communicate via social net ...
teacher-student relationship, social networking sites, SNS-mediated communication, Facebook
273 - 289
Meital Amzalag, Nelly Elias, Yael Kali
Students of Ethiopian origin belong to one of the weakest sectors in the Jewish population of Israel. During their studies they have to deal with social alienation, cultural gaps, economic hardships, and racial stereotypes which reduce their chances to successfully complete their academic degree. In this respect, the present research asks whether online social media could provide those youngsters ...
students of Ethiopian origin, immigrant’ social integration, social media, online learning groups, peripheral participation, Israel
291 - 312
Hani Swirski, Ayelet Baram-Tsabari
Can questions sent to Open-Educational-Resource (OER) websites such as Ask-An-Expert serve as indicators for students’ interest in science? This issue was examined using an online questionnaire which included an equal number of questions about the topics “space” and “nutrition” randomly selected from three different sources: a 5th-grade science textbook, the “Ask-An-Expert” website, and questions ...
Ask-A-Scientist, elementary school, Interest, Open Educational Resource, Science curriculum, Students’ questions, Student voice
313 - 327
Karen Spektor-Precel, David Mioduser
Nowadays, we are surrounded by artifacts that are capable of adaptive behavior, such as electric pots, boiler timers, automatic doors, and robots. The literature concerning human beings’ conceptions of “traditional” artifacts is vast, however, little is known about our conceptions of behaving artifacts, nor of the influence of the interaction with such artifacts on cognitive development, especiall ...
Theory of Mind (ToM), Theory of Artificial Mind (ToAM), Cognitive Development, Behaving artifacts, Robots
329 - 345

Volume 10, 2014

Hager Khechine, Sawsen Lakhal, Daniel Pascot, Alphonse Bytha
33 - 52
Breno Fabricio Terra Azevedo, Eliseo Reategui, Patricia Alejandra Behar
107 - 121
Nitza Geri, Avner Caspi, Yoram M. Kalman, Vered Silber-Varod, Yoav Yair, Yoram Eshet-Alkalai
123 - 130
Ashlea Bennett Milburn, Andrew Braham, Jeton McClinton
229 - 246
285 - 292

Volume 9, 2013

Ana Casali, Claudia Deco, Agustín Romano, Guillermo Tomé
77 - 87
Esther Del Moral-Pérez, Ana Cernea, Lourdes Villalustre
105 - 124
Steven Bruneel, Kurt De Wit, Jef C. Verhoeven, Jan Elen
125 - 148
171 - 192
Nitza Geri, Avner Caspi, Sigal Eden, Yoram M. Kalman, Yoav Yair, Yoram Eshet-Alkalai
193 - 199
201 - 218
249 - 266

Volume 8, 2012

Nitza Geri, Avner Caspi, Sigal Eden, Yoram M Kalman, Yoav Yair, Yoram Eshet-Alkalai
65 - 71
Moshe Leiba, Ruth Zuzovsky, David Mioduser, Yehuda Benayahu, Rafi Nachmias
165 - 178

Volume 7, 2011

David M. Majerich, Judith C. Stull, Susan Jansen Varnum, Tiffany Gilles, Joseph P. Ducette
11 - 24
Carla Fillmann Barcelos, João Carlos Gluz, Rosa Maria Vicari
37 - 54
Rubén Peredo Valderrama, Alejandro Canales Cruz, Iván Peredo Valderrama
55 - 67
111 - 123
157 - 168
169 - 184
Stavros Valsamidis, Sotirios Kontogiannis, Ioannis Kazanidis, Alexandros Karakos
185 - 204
249 - 273
Anat Cohen, Eli Shmueli, Rafi Nachmias
323 - 338

Volume 6, 2010

Michelle WL Fong, Robert Sims
45 - 60
Enrique Estellés Arolas, Esther Del Moral-Pérez, Fernando González
175 - 191
Ilona Béres, Márta Turcsányi-Szabó
203 - 215
Yoram Eshet-Alkalai, Avner Caspi, Sigal Eden, Nitza Geri, Edna Tal-Elhasid, Yoav Yair
239 - 244
Ronen Hammer, Miki Ronen, Amit Sharon, Tali Lankry, Yoni Huberman, Victoria Zamtsov
293 - 304

Volume 5, 2009

Robin Kay, Liesel Knaack, Diana Petrarca
27 - 50
51 - 72
73 - 90
Alex Koohang, Liz Riley, Terry J. Smith, Jeanne Schreurs
91 - 109
Cornelia Brodahl, Bjørn Smestad
111 - 127
Yevgen Biletskiy, Michael Wojcenovic, Hamidreza Baghi
169 - 180
Yoram Eshet-Alkalai, Avner Caspi, Sigal Eden, Nitza Geri, Yoav Yair
181 - 186
David Pundak, Orit Herscovitz, Miri Shaham, Rivka Wiser-Biton
215 - 232
Oren Zuckerman, Ina Blau, Andrés Monroy-Hernández
263 - 274
Tamar Shamir-Inbal, Jacob Dayan, Yael Kali
307 - 334
Oskar Casquero, Ariana Landaluce, Javier Portillo, Manuel Benito, Jesús Romo
399 - 418

Volume 4, 2008

Nathalie Hernandez, Josiane Mothe, Bachelin Ralalason, Bertin Ramamonjisoa, Patricia Stolf
65 - 82
Oskar Casquero, Javier Portillo, Manuel Benito, Jesús Romo
97 - 111
Doina Ana Cernea, Esther Del Moral-Pérez, Jose E. Labra Gayo
137 - 149
Àngels Rius, Miguel-Angel Sicilia , Elena García-Barriocanal
151 - 165
Annemieke Craig, Annegret Goold, Jo Coldwell, Jamie Mustar
205 - 223
259 - 267
303 - 315

Volume 3, 2007

19 - 28
45 - 55
Kevin R. Parker, Joseph T. Chao
57 - 72
73 - 83
Gurparkash Singh, Louise Hawkins, Greg Whymark
85 - 105
135 - 162
Danijela Milosevic, Mirjana Brkovic, Matjaz Debevc, Radojka Krneta
163 - 174
239 - 250

Volume 2, 2006

Eli Boyd Cohen, Eli Cohen, Malgorzata Nycz
23 - 34
Pollyana Notargiacomo Mustaro , Ismar Frango Silveira
35 - 46
Zeynel Cebeci , Mehmet Tekdal
47 - 57
59 - 76
Philippe Fournier-Viger, Mehdi Najjar, Andre Mayers, Roger Nkambou
77 - 94
105 - 110
Vito Nicola Convertini, Diego Albanese, Agostino Marengo, Vittorio Marengo , Michele Scalera
125 - 138

Volume 1, 2005

Keith Harman , Alex Koohang
67 - 77
Colla Jean MacDonald, Emma Stodel, Terrie Thompson, Bill Muirhead, Chris Hinton, Brad Carson, Erin Banit
79 - 98
Zeynel Cebeci , Yoldas Erdogan
99 - 108
Freimut Bodendorf, Manfred Schertler, Eli Boyd Cohen, Eli Cohen
127 - 142
Valentina Malaxa , Ian Douglas
151 - 162
Deana M. Namuth, Susan Fritz, James King, Amy Boren
181 - 196
Mimi Recker, Jim Dorward, Deonne Dawson, Xin Mao, Ye Liu, Bart Palmer, Sam Halioris, Jaeyang Park
197 - 216

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