Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, and Facilitating Conditions as Factors Influencing Smart Phones Use for Mobile Learning by Postgraduate Students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria
This study examines the influence of Performance Expectancy (PE), Effort Expectancy (EE), and Facilitating Conditions (FC) on the use of smart phones for mobile learning by postgraduate students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Due to the low level of mobile learning adoption by students in Nigeria, three base constructs of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model were used as factors to determine smart phone use for mobile learning by the postgraduate students in the University of Ibadan.
The study adopted a descriptive survey research design of the correlational type, the two-stage random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 217 respondents, and a questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics (frequency counts, percentages, mean, and standard deviation), test of norm, and inferential statistics (correlation and regression analysis) were used to analyze the data collected.
The study empirically validated the UTAUT model as a model useful in predicting smart phone use for mobile learning by postgraduate students in developing countries.
The study revealed that a significant number of postgraduate students used their smart phones for mobile learning on a weekly basis. Findings also revealed a moderate level of Performance Expectancy (𝑥 =16.97), Effort Expectancy (𝑥 =12.57) and Facilitating Conditions (𝑥 =15.39) towards the use of smart phones for mobile learning. Results showed a significant positive relationship between all the independent variables and use of smart phones for mobile learning (PE, r=.527*; EE, r=.724*; and FCs, r=.514*). Out of the independent variables, PE was the strongest predictor of smart phone use for mobile learning (β =.189).
Librarians in the university library should organize periodic workshops for postgraduate students in order to expose them to the various ways of using their smart phones to access electronic databases.
There is a need for extensive studies on the factors influencing mobile technologies adoption and use in learning in developing countries.
Nowadays, mobile learning is increasingly being adopted over conventional learning systems due to its numerous benefits. Thus, this study provides an insight into the issues influencing the use of smart phones for mobile learning by postgraduate students from developing countries.
This study utilized the base constructs of the UTAUT model to determine smart phone use for mobile learning by postgraduate students in a Nigerian university. Subsequent research should focus on other theories to ascertain factors influencing Information Technology adoption and usage by students in developing countries.