Determinants of the Adoption of Mobile Learning Systems among University Students in Indonesia
This study investigates the factors that influence university students’ intentions to adopt mobile learning for their learning activities. A theoretical model is developed based on prior research incorporating constructs from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and specific mobile learning constructs, as well as the moderating effects of gender and experience.
Mobile Learning, the use of smartphones and other mobile devices in accessing education materials, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Despite the widespread use of smartphones by students, not many universities have adopted mobile learning in their teaching and learning activities.
A paper-based questionnaire was used to collect data. A final sample of 696 student responses from five urban universities in Indonesia was used. All of the constructs in the model are measured using existing scales. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze and develop the theoretical model using Amos software.
This research contributes to the theoretical understanding of mobile learning adoption as well as practice and provides guidance for university managers to successfully implement mobile learning in their universities. In particular, the study explores moderating effects due to gender and mobile learning experience and presents more complete findings based on total effects instead of only considering direct effects.
Perceived Enjoyment and Perceived Usefulness are the two most influencing factors in the adoption of mobile learning. Gender moderates the direct effect of learning autonomy on behavioral intention. New findings include significant correlations and causal effects involving learning autonomy, perceived enjoyment, facilitating condition, perceived mobility, social influence, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use.
University managers should ensure that the students can enjoy mobile learning and also find it useful for their learning activities. Furthermore, the University has to facilitate and support the mobile learning system and infrastructure, and they also need to create a university learning environment where professors, senior students, and friends all encourage the adoption of mobile learning.
Research on mobile learning adoption should consider the moderator effects on the factors of behavioral intention to adopt mobile learning. Different groupings within these moderators should also be examined.
Additional studies may address and compare findings with respondents from rural Indonesian universities where the infrastructure and facilities are inferior to those in urban universities as well as participants from other cultural contexts.