External and Internal Barriers in Technology Integration: A Structural Regression Analysis
The aim of this study is to propose and test a model in which perceived barriers to technology integration are handled within a broad framework. It can be argued that the proposed model will have the dynamics to examine the studies performed on technology integration in a generic way and to have an important place in explaining the technology barriers at individual and school level under internal and external barriers. This can then be used to minimize such barriers and facilitate technology integration.
As seen in previous studies, barriers constitute a complex structure that is encountered in almost every environment for different reasons, affects the teaching-learning process, and contains several variables under primary and secondary barriers. It is thought that exploring this complex structure plays a key role in technology integration. In many studies, it is observed that the barriers are addressed as internal and external aspects but work on such aspects is quite limited.
Based on the convenience sampling method, the research was planned and conducted in accordance with the relational survey model. A structural regression model was used to examine the barriers that teachers perceive in technology integration. The sample of the study involved 449 teachers working in different branches at nine public schools in the academic year of 2018-2019 at the city center of Kirsehir province, and they participated on a voluntary basis. The number of teachers in the research sample corresponds to 73% of the total number of teachers in Kirsehir.
The contribution to the literature is proposing and testing a model which can be used to measure technological barriers in technology integration in education considering internal and external factors with a large perspective and holistically.
The findings of the structural regression model used in this study showed that beliefs towards learning-teaching activities (BLTA), beliefs towards the expert support (BES), technological self-efficacy beliefs (TSEB), family resistance (FR), assessment (ASSES), and pedagogical self-efficacy beliefs (PSEB) are located under internal barriers and that lack of vision (LV), lack of money (LM), lack of training (LT), infrastructure (INF), content (CONT), and time (TIME) are all part of external factors. Furthermore, the results showed that external barriers affect the internal barriers directly and positively. Finally, it was observed that beliefs towards change (BC) and lack of leadership (LL) had no effect on internal or external barriers.
As the findings of this study were discussed under internal and external barriers to technology integration, the results of the study could shed a light for managers, teachers or candidate teachers within the framework of “technology integration.” The identification of barriers in different settings should be used as the first step in minimizing the impact of such barriers in technology integration in education.
The work done can form the basis of investigating the impacts of latest technology on education, and necessary dimensions on the technology integration within the context of internal and external factors in the classroom or in a virtual learning environment for further research. Findings should then be used to aid technology integration in education.
The effective and successful technology integration may be reached by minimizing the barriers identified.
Future research can investigate technological barriers with reference to external variables (e.g., motivation, acceptance, satisfaction) using the developed scale. The findings can then be used to eliminate the barriers and facilitate technology integration.