From an Artificial Neural Network to Teaching

Dror Mughaz, Michael Cohen, Sagit Mejahez, Tal Ades, Dan Bouhnik
Interdisciplinary Journal of e-Skills and Lifelong Learning  •  Volume 16  •  2020  •  pp. 001-017
Aim/Purpose: Using Artificial Intelligence with Deep Learning (DL) techniques, which mimic the action of the brain, to improve a student’s grammar learning process. Finding the subject of a sentence using DL, and learning, by way of this computer field, to analyze human learning processes and mistakes. In addition, showing Artificial Intelligence learning processes, with and without a general overview of the problem that it is under examination. Applying the idea of the general perspective that the network gets on the sentences and deriving recommendations from this for teaching processes.

Background: We looked for common patterns of computer errors and human grammar mistakes. Also deducing the neural network’s learning process, deriving conclusions, and applying concepts from this process to the process of human learning.

Methodology: We used DL technologies and research methods. After analysis, we built models from three types of complex neuronal networks – LSTM, Bi-LSTM, and GRU – with sequence-to-sequence architecture. After this, we combined the sequence-to- sequence architecture model with the attention mechanism that gives a general overview of the input that the network receives.

Contribution: The cost of computer applications is cheaper than that of manual human effort, and the availability of a computer program is much greater than that of humans to perform the same task. Thus, using computer applications, we can get many desired examples of mistakes without having to pay humans to perform the same task. Understanding the mistakes of the machine can help us to under-stand the human mistakes, because the human brain is the model of the artificial neural network. This way, we can facilitate the student learning process by teaching students not to make mistakes that we have seen made by the artificial neural network. We hope that with the method we have developed, it will be easier for teachers to discover common mistakes in students’ work before starting to teach them. In addition, we show that a “general explanation” of the issue under study can help the teaching and learning process.

Findings: We performed the test case on the Hebrew language. From the mistakes we received from the computerized neuronal networks model we built, we were able to classify common human errors. That is, we were able to find a correspondence between machine mistakes and student mistakes.

Recommendations for Practitioners: Use an artificial neural network to discover mistakes, and teach students not to make those mistakes. We recommend that before the teacher begins teaching a new topic, he or she gives a general explanation of the problems this topic deals with, and how to solve them.

Recommendations for Researchers: To use machines that simulate the learning processes of the human brain, and study if we can thus learn about human learning processes.

Impact on Society: When the computer makes the same mistakes as a human would, it is very easy to learn from those mistakes and improve the study process. The fact that ma-chine and humans make similar mistakes is a valuable insight, especially in the field of education, Since we can generate and analyze computer system errors instead of doing a survey of humans (who make mistakes similar to those of the machine); the teaching process becomes cheaper and more efficient.

Future Research: We plan to create an automatic grammar-mistakes maker (for instance, by giving the artificial neural network only a tiny data-set to learn from) and ask the students to correct the errors made. In this way, the students will practice on the material in a focused manner. We plan to apply these techniques to other education subfields and, also, to non-educational fields. As far as we know, this is the first study to go in this direction ‒ instead of looking at organisms and building machines, to look at machines and learn about organisms.
deep-learning, text-mining, Hebrew, subject-tagger
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