Assessing Student’s Adoption of E-Learning: An Integration of TAM and TPB Framework
The purpose of this study is to assess the factors that have significant influences on students’ adoption of e-learning systems and to what extent these factors affect them.
E-learning has become an essential tool and makes it an inevitable option for education in the future. E-learning has received considerable attention in recent times as a global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, developing countries, including Vietnam, are facing many difficulties when adopting e-learning systems. Therefore, it is essential to comprehensively evaluate the factors that influence the intention of students to use e-learning to enhance the implementation process and also improve educational quality.
Initially, the authors synthesized a literature review from 112 related studies to complete the proposed research model including the combination of C-TAM-TPB model and external variables impacting students’ adoption of e-learning systems. After that, a sample of 172 students at FPT University Vietnam was collected to test the proposed model and explain students’ intentions. The dataset was investigated and analyzed with PLS-SEM using the SmartPLS 3.3.3 tool.
The study has made a significant contribution to the current literature by pro-posing an extended model between C-TAM-TPB and three external variables to provide a better understanding on students' behavioral intention to use e-learning. Furthermore, the research findings also provide useful guidelines for innovating and improving an effective e-learning system to advance student learning motivation in the educational environment.
The findings demonstrate that Computer Self-efficacy and Perceived Accessibility have an important influence on Perceived Ease of Use by learners of an e-learning system. Furthermore, Perceived Enjoyment affects the Perceived Usefulness of e-learning systems. For the TAM, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use both have a positive impact on Attitude toward Use, and Attitude has a positive relationship with the Behavioral Intention of students. In addition, the factors from the TPB model (i.e., Perceived Behavioral Control and Subjective Norm) were identified as having a significant positive effect on Behavioral Intention to use e-learning.
Firstly, educational institutions should help along with the culture of using e-learning among students and lecturers. A supportive team should be accessible to help students use e-learning by providing instructions and addressing their questions. Secondly, system developers should concentrate on system-related aspects that have a significant influence on learners’ attitudes and intentions to utilize, as well as build the most appropriate e-learning system for students.
Firstly, the study fulfills a significant literature gap on evaluating e-learning effectiveness for learners in private institutions as they are focusing on developing quality education to gain competitive advantages. Secondly, based on research findings, the researchers may be able to advance studies to improve and innovate a quality system for ensuring the long-term usage of e-learning. Finally, this paper contributes to the theoretical foundation and development of an extended model for future studies to assess the intention when employing new technologies in education and other fields.
E-learning will become a necessary tool and an unavoidable possibility in the next period of education. Therefore, this study presents an overview of the factors that have a notable influence on students’ intention to adopt e-learning systems. This study then proposes to develop an optimal system for the teaching and learning process, as well as to adapt to future demands.
Firstly, there are just three external variables that are considered to have an impact on learners’ intention via TAM. However, other external factors could be exploited in future research. Secondly, the participants in this study are only students. If the lecturers could take part in this survey, the comparisons between faculty and students may have more usefulness for assessment. Thirdly, this model just interprets the results at a certain time, which is the COVID-19 outbreak and e-learning is an urgent response to maintain the process of teaching and learning. The perception, attitude, and performance of students may change over time. Therefore, as other researchers have recommended, longitudinal surveys should be considered here. Finally, the differences between majors may appear. Future studies can divide groups of learners according to their majors for a more significant test.