TPACK, Organizational Support, and Technostress in Explaining Teacher Performance During Fully Online Learning

Indra Maipita, Faisal Rahman Dongoran, Dedy Husrizal Syah, Gaffar Hafiz Sagala
Journal of Information Technology Education: Research  •  Volume 22  •  2023  •  pp. 041-070

This study aims to analyze (1) the effect of organizational support on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), (2) the effect of organizational support and TPACK on teacher performance, (3) the effect of organizational support and TPACK on technostress, and (4) the effect of technostress on teacher performance.

The disruption of Information Technology (IT) innovation in educational practice happened two decades ago. However, the more massive and intense IT integration in teaching and learning practice was demanded during the COVID-19 pandemic. These circumstances made teachers and students face a new teaching and learning environment with complete IT mediation. Therefore, they will show a unique response valuable for managing effective education and further research regarding teaching and learning in the online environment.

Using a purposive sampling technique, data was collected from 419 pre-service teachers in the economics and business field. The data was then tabulated and analyzed using PLS-SEM.

This study connects the concept of TPACK as knowledge to organizational support and technostress as the organizational and personal response to deal with massive IT integration in fully online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study bridges the educational concept of teacher competence to the behavioral framework of IS users to deal with the online environment. Teaching and learning are tasks that engage human-to-human interaction, which is different from other productive activities like the business sector. Therefore, this study may give fruitful findings, both theoretically and practically, to improve educational practice in this digital age.

Researchers found that organizational support and TPACK were valuable antecedents of teacher performance in an online environment. At the same time, technostress is not a critical threat to teacher performance. However, technostress exists among teachers and is uncontrollable by TPACK and organizational support. Researchers argue it is an unavoidable circumstance. The educational system demands a rapid shift to fully online learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the teacher should accept the challenge to maintain the continuity of teaching and learning activities.

(1) Teachers’ knowledge and organizational support should become an essential concern for policy makers and school leaders to maintain teacher performance in this dynamic online environment. (2) The educational leader should develop a strategy to manage technostress among teachers from another aspect beyond TPACK and organizational support. (3) Policymakers should develop a strategy to compensate for teacher effort and sacrifices resulting from IT disruption in their working experience.

Researchers should confirm and refine the framework developed in the private sector to the educational sector to generate more theoretical and empirical understanding regarding the functional integration of IT devices on certain entities’ productive tasks.

This study gives more understanding of how teachers respond to IT-integrated tasks in their academic activity. This discussion will give more wisdom to understand the threshold of IT usefulness in the educational field besides giving preference to managing it to maintain teachers’ work quality.

Further research is required to identify the critical factors to manage teachers’ technostress effectively. A qualitative research method may be helpful in exploring teachers’ complex responses regarding IT-integrated tasks.

online learning, COVID-19, physical distancing, teacher education
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