Antecedents of Business Analytics Adoption and Impacts on Banks’ Performance: The Perspective of the TOE Framework and Resource-Based View

Omar Mohammed Horani, Ali Khatibi, Anas RATIB ALSoud, Jacquline Tham, Ahmad Samed Al-Adwan, S. M. Ferdous Azam
Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management  •  Volume 18  •  2023  •  pp. 609-643

This study utilized a comprehensive framework to investigate the adoption of Business Analytics (BA) and its effects on performance in commercial banks in Jordan. The framework integrated the Technological-Organizational-Environmental (TOE) model, the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory, and the Resource-Based View (RBV).

The recent trend of utilizing data for business operations and decision-making has positively impacted organizations. Business analytics (BA) is a leading technique that generates valuable insights from data. It has gained considerable attention from scholars and practitioners across various industries. However, guidance is lacking for organizations to implement BA effectively specific to their business contexts. This research aims to evaluate factors influencing BA adoption by Jordanian commercial banks and examine how its implementation impacts bank performance. The goal is to provide needed empirical evidence surrounding BA adoption and outcomes in the Jordanian banking sector.

The study gathered empirical data by conducting an online questionnaire survey with senior and middle managers from 13 commercial banks in Jordan. The participants were purposefully selected, and the questionnaire was designed based on relevant and well-established literature. A total of 307 valid questionnaires were collected and considered for data analysis.

This study makes a dual contribution to the BA domain. Firstly, it introduces a research model that comprehensively examines the factors that influence the adoption of BA. The proposed model integrates the TOE framework, DOI theory, and RBV theory. Combining these frameworks allows for a comprehensive examination of BA adoption in the banking industry. By analyzing the technological, organizational, and environmental factors through the TOE framework, understanding the diffusion process through the DOI theory, and assessing the role of resources and capabilities through the RBV theory, researchers and practitioners can better understand the complex dynamics involved. This integrated approach enables a more nuanced assessment of the factors that shape BA adoption and its subsequent impact on business performance within the banking industry. Secondly, it uncovers the effects of BA adoption on business performance. These noteworthy findings stem from a rigorous analysis of primary data collected from commercial banks in Jordan. By presenting a holistic model and delving into the implications for business performance, this research offers valuable insights to researchers and practitioners alike in the field of BA.

The findings revealed that various technological (data quality, complexity, compatibility, relative advantage), organizational (top management support, organizational readiness), and environmental (external support) factors are crucial in shaping the decision to adopt BA. Furthermore, the study findings demonstrated a positive relationship between BA adoption and performance outcomes in Jordanian commercial banks.

The findings suggest that Jordanian commercial banks should enforce data quality practices, provide clear standards, invest in data quality tools and technologies, and conduct regular data audits. Top management support is crucial for fostering a data-driven decision-making culture. Organizational readiness involves having the necessary resources and skilled personnel, as well as promoting continuous learning and improvement. Highlighting the benefits of BA helps overcome resistance to technological innovation and encourages adoption by demonstrating improved decision-making processes and operational efficiency. Furthermore, external support is crucial for banks to adopt Business Analytics (BA). Banks should partner with experienced vendors to gain expertise and incorporate best practices. Vendors also provide training and technical support to overcome technological barriers. Compatibility is essential for optimal performance, requiring managers to modify workflows and IT infrastructure. Complexity, including data, organizational, and technical complexities, is a major obstacle to BA adoption. Banks should take a holistic approach, focusing on people, processes, and technology, and prioritize data quality and governance. Building a skilled team, fostering a data-driven culture, and investing in technology and infrastructure are essential.

The integration of the TOE framework, the DOI theory, and the RBV theory can prove to be a powerful approach for comprehensively analyzing the various factors that influence BA adoption within the dynamic banking industry. Furthermore, this combined framework enables us to gain deeper insights into the subsequent impact of BA adoption on overall business performance.

Examining the factors influencing BA adoption in the banking industry and its subsequent impact on business performance can have wide-ranging societal implications. It can promote data-driven decision-making, enhance customer experiences, strengthen fraud detection, foster financial inclusion, contribute to economic growth, and trigger discussions on ethical considerations.

To further advance future research, there are several avenues to consider. One option is to broaden the scope by including a larger sample size, allowing for a more comprehensive analysis. Another possibility is to investigate the impact of BA adoption on various performance indicators beyond the ones already examined. Additionally, incorporating qualitative research methods would provide a more holistic understanding of the organizational dynamics and challenges associated with the adoption of BA in Jordanian commercial banks.

business analytics, technology adoption, banking, toe framework, data quality, diffusion of innovation, organizational readiness, business performance
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