A Systematic Review of the UTAUT and UTAUT2 Among K-12 Educators

Lisa I Kittinger, Victor Law
Journal of Information Technology Education: Research  •  Volume 23  •  2024  •  pp. 017

The purpose of this systematic literature review is to evaluate the application of UTAUT and UTAUT2 frameworks in K-12 education.

This study included an analysis of peer-reviewed empirical studies that use the UTAUT and UTAUT2 frameworks to understand the factors that influence technology adoption among K-12 educators. New constructs were identified, and core determinates of the models were studied.

The researchers used a systematic literature review. Inclusion criteria required articles to be written in English, non-duplicate, peer-reviewed, focused on K-12 educators, and employing quantitative methods to test or extend the UTAUT or UTAUT2 models. We used a strategic search string to conduct standardized searches across multiple databases in education, psychology, business, engineering, and multi-disciplinary publications. We conducted a screening process on the initially identified 98 articles. We kept 14 articles for final analysis, as they met the inclusion criteria.

This study contributes to the fields of (a) information science, (b) information technology (IT), and (c) education by offering a more detailed analysis and understanding of the use of UTAUT and UTAUT2 in studying technology adoption among K-12 educators.

The results show performance expectancy and social influence are the most used core factors. A total of 27 new variables were identified and organized into a taxonomy. Discrepancies in the application of the models were identified and further discussed. The use of UTAUT and UTAUT2 in K-12 education is minimal.

Findings inform stakeholders in education (e.g., directors of technology operations, administrators, educators) and educational technology businesses (e.g., software engineers, interface and content designers, and user experience designers) how to create and integrate products that fit the true needs of the end-users. Technology must align with the tasks needed to accomplish educational objectives (performance expectancy), and certain environmental conditions are needed to support technology usage. Educators should also be aware their decisions regarding technology adoption are influenced by social factors, such as their superiors and peers.

Researchers need to conduct more studies using UTAUT and UTAUT2 within K-12 education. It is likely that teachers are influenced by their students, although little research exists to study this relationship through the lens of these models. Moreover, consideration should be given when renaming variables, using certain relationships, and developing research models.

Findings support our understanding of educational technology adoption, which benefits our education system, especially teachers and students alike, when done successfully.

Future research should include a meta-analysis exploring the statistical extent of relationships and new variables identified.

education, UTAUT, UTAUT2, technology adoption, K-12, educators
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