Continued Usage Intention of Mobile Learning (M-Learning) in Iraqi Universities Under an Unstable Environment: Integrating the ECM and UTAUT2 Models

Ahmed Ghazi Hameed Al-Rikabi, Putra Bin Sumari, Hussain A. Younis
Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management  •  Volume 19  •  2024  •  pp. 003

This study examines the adoption and continued use of m-learning in Iraqi universities amidst an unstable environment by extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2) and Expectation-Confirmation Model (ECM) models. The primary goal is to address the specific challenges and opportunities in Iraq’s higher education institutions (HEIs) due to geopolitical instability and understand their impact on student acceptance, satisfaction, and continued m-learning usage.

The research builds on the growing importance of m-learning, especially in HEIs, and recognizes the unique challenges faced by institutions in Iraq, given the region’s instability. It identifies gaps in existing models and proposes extensions, introducing the variable “civil conflicts” to account for the volatile context. The study aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of m-learning acceptance in conflict-affected regions and provide insights for improving m-learning initiatives in Iraqi HEIs.

To achieve its objectives, this research employed a quantitative survey to collect data from 399 students in five Iraqi universities. PLS-SEM is used for the analysis of quantitative data, testing the extended UTAUT2 and ECM models.

The study’s findings are expected to contribute to the development of a nuanced understanding of m-learning adoption and continued usage in conflict-affected regions, particularly in the Iraqi HEI context.

The study’s findings may inform strategies to enhance the effectiveness of m-learning initiatives in Iraqi HEIs and offer insights into how education can be supported in regions characterized by instability.

Educators and policymakers can benefit from the research by making informed decisions to support education continuity and quality, particularly in conflict-affected areas.

Researchers can build upon this study by further exploring the adoption and usage of m-learning in unstable environments and evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed model extensions.

The research has the potential to positively impact society by improving access to quality education in regions affected by conflict and instability.

Future research can expand upon this study by examining the extended model’s applicability in different conflict-affected regions and assessing the long-term impact of m-learning initiatives on students’ educational outcomes.

mobile learning (m-learning), higher education institutions (HEIs), unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2), expectation confirmation model (ECM)
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