Researching Influences of Learner Experience on AR/VR Adoption - The Case of Vietnamese Universities

Trinh Le Tan, Hoai Thu Thi Nguyen, Nguyen Chau Ngoc Khanh, Thanh Hien Thi Le, Uyen Truong Hoang Vo
Journal of Information Technology Education: Research  •  Volume 23  •  2024  •  pp. 007

The study aims to analyze the elements/factors that impact students’ augmented reality/virtual reality (AR/VR) adoption through their behavior in Vietnamese higher education. In particular, the research demonstrates the influences of and relationships between multiple goals, learner experience, and barriers to adopting AR/VR.

The widespread adoption of digital transformation in numerous industries demonstrates its prospects and potential for growth. Many cutting-edge technologies, including AR and VR, have been included in educational activities because they have the potential to elevate academic standards across numerous colleges. However, their implementation and practice within higher education appear confusing to lecturers, organizations, and, in particular, students. Their innovative nature and differences are the fundamental causes. Hence, thoroughly elaborating the elements that impact the adoption of students – the target audience – through investigating the behavior if these factors are crucial to ensure the benefits of AR/VR are leveraged while the implementation procedures are enhanced.

By integrating earlier research, the research proposes a theoretical framework to explore how learners of AR/VR adopt these technologies. Discussion group interviews with professionals, namely four lecturers at Vietnam universities, were conducted. The professionals adjusted elements and changed the scales in order to optimize them in accordance with the context of Vietnamese universities. Additionally, the authors surveyed 200 students whose responses were transformed into numerical data. SmartPLS-SEM 4.0.9.3 software was used to test whether specific hypotheses were accepted or rejected.

The research holds immense significance as it employs customer behavior as the foundational theory to construct a proposed model delineating the influence of learner experience on multiple goals and AR/VR adoption. Moreover, the study’s findings empower educational establishments to strategically allocate resources toward enhancing student experiences, aligning with learner goals, and consequently augmenting the adoption of AR/VR technologies.

Regarding the relationship between learner experience and multiple goals, the findings indicate that convenience experience greatly impacts academic goals and social goals. Immersive experience also has a remarkable influence on academic goals, social goals, and practical goals. As regards the impact of multiple goals on AR/VR adoption, the research reveals that academic, social, and practical goals have a significant effect on such adoption. Concerning the correlation between learner experience and AR/VR adoption, it can be seen that usage experience and entertainment experience have a beneficial effect on such adoption.

In terms of practical contributions, educational organizations in Vietnam can use the research during AR/VR implementation processes to maximize the benefits of AR/VR in education.

The authors conduct a theoretical research framework for the adoption of AR/VR technology into Vietnam’s higher education digital platform. The research approaches a different aspect in the context of higher education, which considers students as customers based on prior research on customer behaviors through multiple goals and learner experiences to evaluate their impacts on the AR/VR adoption of students.

AR/VR has achieved extensive utilization and widespread acclaim across various sectors, notably education. Within the context of higher education institutions, the integration of AR/VR applications not only has advantages but also presents associated challenges. Therefore, the present inquiry was undertaken to elucidate the determinants influencing students’ receptiveness toward AR/VR utilization. Educational establishments can leverage the insights gained from analyzing the learner experience and multifaceted objectives of, as well as impediments to, AR/VR assimilation to enhance favorable elements and mitigate unfavorable aspects during the process of AR/VR implementation. The overarching objective is to elevate the degree of AR/VR adoption among students.

Further research can consult the customer behavior approach regarding technological adoption in educational contexts. In addition, apart from adoption, dependent variables can be studied, such as satisfaction with or decision to use AR/VR in future research.

education, AR/VR technology, multiple goals, AR/VR adoption, learner experience, barriers
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