Influence of Students’ Self-Control and Smartphone E-Learning Readiness on Smartphone-Cyberloafing

Amin Khalifeh, Mohammad Hamdi Al Khasawneh, Mohammad Alrousan, Ahmad Samed Al-Adwan, Firas Wahsheh, Fandi Yousef Omeish, Husam Ananzeh
Journal of Information Technology Education: Research  •  Volume 23  •  2024  •  pp. 016

This research aims to empirically investigate and answer the following research questions: Do students’ self-control and smartphone e-learning readiness influence smartphone-cyberloafing, and does gender play a role in this relationship?

Research indicates that many students’ learning time is wasted due to cyberloafing, which involves non-course-related activities on their digital devices. Smartphones present a more significant potential for distracting learners than other technological instruments because of their availability, ease of access, and user-friendly interface. The issue of cyberloafing presents a notable challenge in both traditional (in-person) learning environments and online e-learning settings. However, insufficient relevant contributions have been made.

An online survey strategy was applied using a self-administered questionnaire technique for data collection. The investigation involved 477 students participated from four universities in Jordan. The partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) method was used to validate the research model and test relationships.

This study is considered one of the first studies concerned with cyberloafing in e-learning environments; it could be the first one in the Arab world. It provides empirical evidence that supports relevant literature and contributes to the problem-solving of cyberloafing. Also, it provides an excellent direction for future empirical contributions.

The findings reveal that students’ self-control and smartphone e-learning readiness could significantly reduce smartphone-cyberloafing activities of higher education students. However, no significant influence was found on gender in smartphone-cyberloafing. This study offers significant contributions to both theory and practice in education. Theoretically, it advances the understanding of self-control in mitigating smartphone-cyberloafing and highlights the importance of e-learning readiness, enriching the framework for digital student behaviour. It provides actionable insights for educational institutions, policymakers, and educators to address smartphone-cyberloafing by developing interventions that enhance self-control and e-learning readiness. Recommendations include workshops, engaging online activities, learning analytics, faculty training, collaboration with stakeholders, and policies promoting responsible smartphone use. These measures aim to create a productive e-learning environment and improve the overall academic experience.

Relevant institutions can develop targeted interventions and support mechanisms to mitigate smartphone-cyberloafing and enhance students’ engagement in e-learning. These may include workshops or resources aimed at improving self-control and e-learning readiness, equipping students with the skills needed to manage their digital learning environments effectively. Educational policies should promote responsible smartphone use as a part of e-learning, encouraging schools and educators to incorporate smartphone-based learning strategies into their curricula and create guidelines for responsible use.

It is possible to replicate the model while conducting multiple group anal-yses based on these individual differences

The findings of this research may create a more conducive and productive e-learning environment, ultimately improving the academic experience for all students. Such a study could substantially contribute to the sustainability of the education system and society as a whole.

Future works could prioritize examining cyberloafing behaviours occurring within asynchronous learning settings. Furthermore, future studies could incorporate variables about learners’ differences into the model. Finally, it is essential to note that the results are restricted to a single country. Conducting investigations across multiple countries in future endeavours could yield more precise and accurate outcomes.

smartphone e-learning, cyberloafing, smartphone-cyberloafing, students’ self-control, e-learning readiness, gender differences
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