Muma Business Review (MBR)

Online ISSN: 2640-6373  •  COLLABORATIVE JOURNAL

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Volume 3, 2019


Valerie A Mockus
Through the 2016-2017 academic year, student aid applicants completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid used the immediately previous year’s tax information. Beginning in 2017-2018, students were required to use two-year-old tax return information creating a lag in the timeliness of financial health data used to calculate financial aid eligibility. This older data is called Prior-Pri ...
Student Financial Aid, FAFSA, Prior-Prior Year
1 - 25
Janelle Ward
This research was conducted to address leadership concerns regarding managers’ effectiveness in leading a multicultural workforce. Essential leadership skills for frontline managers were explored via pilot study interviews and a follow-on survey. Six leadership skills were identified and prioritized that are currently informing the company’s new leadership development program initiative.
Leadership Skills, Leadership Development Programs, Frontline Managers, Multicultural Organizations
27 - 28
Denise A Breckon, Abidemi Fauziyyah Adebo-Adelaja, Foyeke Abimbola Daramola, Joeletta Patrick
Next Horizons is an entrepreneurial for-profit networking business group. The company operates similar to a professional organization with selective membership and membership fees. Next Horizons aims to expand its current business model by increasing its paying membership. The purpose of this case study is to systematically gather and review evidence on members’ perceived benefits of their members ...
Professional association, professional organization, membership, social exchange theory, systematic review, rapid evidence assessment, rapid evidence assessment
29 - 39
Marlo B Murphy-Braynen
The paper uses a mixed method approach to conduct a literature review of existing econometric studies to determine the key drivers of export diversification and economic growth, and to examine whether export diversification propels or hinders economic growth. The paper differs fundamentally from previous studies, as it focuses on identifying the key variables used, the frequency with which they ar ...
Export Diversification, Economic Growth, Developing Countries, Developed Countries, Small Island Developing States.
41 - 54
Hugh Bettendorf
Operating a business in an Economic Development Zone can offer benefits allowing a business owner to reduce its operating expenses and increasing the competitive advantage.
Rural Enterprise Zone, Enterprise Zone, Economic Development District, Economic Development Strategy, Housing and Urban Development, Rural Development, Smart Rural Development, Rural Incubator, Empowerment Zone, Enterprise community, Entrepreneur, Opportunity Zone and Promise Zone
55 - 69
Douglas A Straka
Government, private business, and academia have been placing increasing emphasis on collaboration in multi-stakeholder, multicultural environments. Persons working within the Department of Defense Theater Security Cooperation environment must regularly interact with others coming from cultures that are dissimilar to their own. They must adapt to these different cultural environments.
collaboration, effectiveness, sensemaking, expatriate, adaptation, power distance, self-monitoring
71 - 74
Douglas H Carter
Entrepreneurship has emerged over the last three decades as arguable the most potent economic force the world has ever experienced. This economic expansion has paralleled rapid growth in the field of entrepreneurship education. Recent developments in curricula and programs devoted to entrepreneurship, new venture creation and corporate innovation have been remarkable. The number of colleges and ...
Entrepreneurship Education, Universities Entrepreneurship Education, University Innovation Concept Centers, New Collegiate Entrepreneurship Programs
75 - 87
James R. Gregory
A culture of innovation is an attribute in business, which can be measured both qualitatively and quantitatively. The measurement of innovation empirically correlates with other measures of the corporate brand, such as overall reputation, perception of management, and investment potential. It seems logical then that the process of innovation may be a more strategic tool that is akin to corporate b ...
Innovation, innovative, innovation management, innovation processes, business culture, innovative culture, disruptive innovation, intangible assets, brand measurement, brand equity, customer experience
89 - 97
Robyn Lord
Fifty million years ago, the equine is chronicled in the early days of Eohippus, the earliest known horse to man. In the 1400s, Cortez and Christopher Columbus transported the first domestic horses to the Americas. Ancient times supported the use of horses in times of war where the industry began utilizing the horse as a vehicle. Today, the equine industry is strongly steeped in traditions and cul ...
Equine, Horses, Hoof care, Natural Horsemanship, Farrier, Shod, Barefoot, Change, Status Quo
99 - 120
Robyn Lord
The equine industry is changing after hundreds of years of solid foundations built on long-standing beliefs. The natural horse and hoof introduction have spurred a push to wake up this sleeping, yet strong industry. Both factions of the industry, hoof care, and horsemanship are affected. The debate of natural versus traditional is growing causing friction in some areas and asking participants to p ...
Horses, Equine, Natural Horsemanship, Qualitative Data Analysis, NVIVO, Status Quo, Change
121 - 135
Robyn Lord
Change management is at the forefront of many business leader’s minds and at the center of most boardrooms. Change is inevitable yet change for many is a very hard task. The Wall Street Journal reported in 2017 that the U.S. spent $63.2 billion on consulting costs, which is an 8.1% increase from $58.7 billion in 2016 (Shumsky, 2018). Many companies pay for high-level consultants to aid around orga ...
Change Management, Status Quo, Grounded Theory, Resistance to change, Organizational Change
137 - 146
Danielle Clark
This is a generational workplace engagement article focused on millennials. The article introduces a variety of academic and practitioner information and research relating to millennial disengagement in the workplace. Concepts covered include employee engagement and disengagement, generational differences and specifically millennial engagement and disengagement. The goal of the article is to revie ...
Millennials, generational differences, workplace engagement, workplace disengagement
147 - 156
Freda Chibuta Brazle
For healthcare insurance companies, managing and reducing medical costs is important to remain viable and/or meet investors and stakeholder expectations. The accountability to minimize costs and remain competitive becomes a responsibility for managers who work in these companies. Therefore, managers must continually look for methods to identify and implement opportunities that improve case manag ...
Case management, case management processes, efficiency, medical cost reduction, healthcare insurance, scientific management theory
157 - 163
Genevieve O Dobson
From the beginning of their inception, Student Loans have been a powerful and many times necessary tool to allow middle and low-income families to send their children to college despite the increasingly higher costs (Collier, D. A., & Herman, R., 2016). These loans are highly regulated by the government under different policies that have changed over time based on the needs of the borrowers and go ...
Student Loan History, Student Loan Policies, National Defense Education Act (NDEA), Federal Loan Regulations, Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP), Department of Education, Direct Loans, Income Driven Repayment programs, Student Loan Consolidation, Higher Education Act
165 - 175
Frederic S Gore
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are critical to managing student information and college operations, but can be challenging for colleges to implement. Consortia present a unique solution to colleges to address gaps in their expertise and skills needed to achieve a successful ERP implementation, even if that collaboration takes place with a competitor.
Higher Education Consortia, ERP in Higher Education, Coopetition in Higher Education.
177 - 179
Tamie Santiago
By 2020, the AI market is expected to grow by $47 billion, with the international big data analytics industry expected to grow by $203 billion. The vast majority of AI development is conducted by a modest number of techno-giants (Twitter, IBM, Amazon, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Apple...). There are over 7 billion people worldwide, yet all of the code is being written by a mere 10,000 people in s ...
Artificial intelligence, AI, AI bias, executive function, decision-making, AI dependency
181 - 192
James J. Mennie
Autonomous Vehicle (A/V) technology has been advancing at a rapid pace but the prospect of mass deployment has not been achieved. Inherent expected benefits of this technology such as reduced loss of life, productivity improvements, and greater vehicle efficiency utilization have yet to materialize. The American public’s resistance, and governmental regulation have prevented widespread adoption ...
A/V technology, Driverless, Lidar, Cloud-based computing, Artificial Intelligence, Radar, Mapping, Self-driving, Robotic, Data Analytics, Connected Vehicles (CV’s), Smart Cities, DSRC, C-V2X, ADAS
193 - 205
James J. Mennie
Autonomous Vehicles have made rapid advances, yet remain elusive for mass adoption. Technology remains in beta phase, and fully autonomous vehicles are not expected until the 2030’s as numerous companies have spent billions of dollars racing towards a safe and reliable solution. Almost 40,000 Americans lose their lives in traffic fatalities every year. The technology for Connected Vehicles and ...
Connected Vehicles (CV’s), Semi-Autonomous vehicles, Autonomous Vehicles technology, Smart Cities, DSRC
207 - 212
Denise A Breckon, Ilene A. McCoy, Tiffany Strom, Donna W Jordan, Keni Galmai
The Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division Logistics Competency is implementing new technology that will transform the way that logistics analysis is performed. Implementing technology can be a challenge for organizations and especially when the technology disrupts the existing logistics processes. Some of the workforce may view the use of digital devices as frustrating and are likely to be re ...
Technology acceptance, TAM, user perceptions, trust, organizational alignment, digital processes, logistics, case study, systematic review
213 - 224
Denise A Breckon, Patty LePage, Allyson Oliver Jones, John Onyeaku, Remedious Bernadine Douglas
A large complex government organization is planning a restructure of their organization from a hybrid matrix or competency-aligned team structure to a more dominant mission-aligned structure. This restructure has the potential to spur organizational problems from employee churn, including a decrease in employee engagement as well as detract from product delivery. The purpose of this study is to sy ...
Ambidextrous leader, employee engagement, rapid evidence assessment, reorganization, restructuring, systematic review
225 - 236

Volume 2, 2018


What triggered the crash of the U.S. housing market? This analysis looks at the economic and industry forces that led to an economic downturn that put as many as half of all U.S. residential builders out of business.
Since the Great Depression, the U.S. housing market has significantly influenced economic production and employment levels. Direct and indirect investments in the housing industry, a ...
Business Failure, Economics, Financial Bubbles, Financial Regulations, Great Recession, Home Building, Housing Bubbles, Housing Market, Sub-Prime Lending
1 - 19
Ramil Cabela
The discovery and development of life-saving drugs have been central to improving health worldwide. However, the state of pharmaceutical innovation has been recently challenged due to falling industry outputs, with breakthrough therapies remaining elusive for many companies. Sustaining drug innovations is a top priority for pharmaceutical executives. This researcher examines existing literature to ...
Pharmaceutical innovation, management strategies, sustained innovation, biopharmaceutical, R&D, strategic alliances.
21 - 36
Murad J Antia
The president recently signed an executive order fulfilling his pledge to reduce federal regulations because it is a widely held belief that unfettered business activity and free-market solutions are integral to economic growth and prosperity, and that government intervention and regulation would be inimical to growth and prosperity. It is difficult to argue with the success of a laissez-faire ec ...
Competition, rent-seeking, monopoly, regulations, government, information asymmetry, externalities, rent-seeking, economic growth.
37 - 42
Desmond (Tres) Bishop
Quality management (QM) in one of its many forms has become an integral part of contemporary business. Since its mainstream introduction to the United States in the early 80’s it has become more than a strategy or a competitive differentiator. QM is now a customer expectation. Most of the voluminous research done in this field was conducted by large businesses for large businesses. However, th ...
Quality, Quality management, TQM, Small business, SME, Small enterprise
43 - 54
Christian G Koch
The Legend of Martha Stewart: Insider Trading
For decades institutional investment managers and individual investors have searched for different ways to make outsized returns in the stock market. Finance theories were created by academics to suggest that this task is not possible because the market is efficient. However, as a scholar-practitioner, I have come to realize that Insider Trading discl ...
Insider trading; Inside information; information content; Sarbanes-Oxley Act; Efficient market hypothesis; Stock returns; Insider transactions; Electronic filings; Financial market anomaly.
55 - 61
Carl E Gilmore
This Industry Analysis looks into the aspects of the stakeholders within the constructs of the college football environment and seeks to explain the various impacts on key stakeholders within the constructs of this industry. More importantly this research tracks the student-athlete both decision paths of the process of seeking a professional football career or an education with the benefits to pla ...
NCAA, Division I, Student-Athlete, Parents, College Football, Conferences, SEC, ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Conference USA, High School, Recruiting, Recruit, Coach, Head Coach, African American, Student, University, College, College Football, Football, NFL Draft, NFL, Revenue, Academics, National Championship, BCS
63 - 82
Darren Spencer
According to Michael Kratsios, Deputy US Technology Officer, and Executive Assistant of President, UASs will contribute to 100,000 new jobs and provide nearly $80 Billion in economic impact in the United States over the next decade, but "errant use poses unique safety and technological challenges" (Kratsios, 2018). It is these two opposing potential results that pit the advocates for fully integra ...
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Aerial Photography, DJI, Drones, FAA, Disruptive Technology, Aviation, Law Enforcement, Emergency Response, Agriculture, Construction
83 - 104
Darren Spencer
The UAS industry is experiencing a rapid expansion, doubling every year since 2013, as adopters of this disruptive technology find new ways to benefit from these aerial platforms (Spencer, 2018). Of particular interest is the use of small to medium sized UASs, with a cost to the user of less than $2,000 that are the catalyst for this growth. Despite this rapid growth, UAS operators claim an inabil ...
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Aerial Photography, DJI, Drones, FAA, Disruptive Technology, Aviation, Law Enforcement, Emergency Response, Agriculture, Construction.
105 - 121
Darren Spencer
The commercial unmanned aircraft industry exists in a rapidly evolving and uncertain environment, with a multitude of well-established, well-financed stakeholders in associated industries each vying to influence that environment. Although influence can come in many forms, Congress holds the ultimate power, and gives agencies like the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) a recurring authorization ...
Drones, Unmanned Aircraft Systems, FAA, Reauthorization Act of 2018, UAS, H.R. 4, S. 1405, H.R. 302
123 - 128
Hugh Bettendorf
The researcher provides information about Economic Development Zones to assist readers’ understanding of these programs. Then, business leaders would be able to make informed decisions about the merits of these programs and whether it makes sense for them to relocate their businesses to one of Florida’s Economic Development Zones
Rural Enterprise Zone, Enterprise Zone, Economic Development District, Economic Development Strategy, Housing and Urban Development, Rural Development, Smart Rural Development, Rural Incubator, Empowerment Zone, Enterprise community, Entrepreneur, Opportunity Zone and Promise Zone.
129 - 145
James R. Gregory
Intangible assets are growing exponentially as a component of company value, but these assets are often unmanaged due to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), which provide no accountability. This research paper reaffirms and expands a proven alternative approach, which utilizes the CoreBrand Index® to measure, value, and manage intangible assets, and their financial impact on the corpo ...
Intangible assets, fair value, brand equity, innovation, brand value, intangible capital,
147 - 149
Kevin C. Taliaferro
This research investigates the sociological, psychological, and physiological factors known to affect women’s career advancement opportunities. It examines how awareness and knowledge shared through the #MeToo (hashtag Me Too) movement influenced gender specific perceptions about the factors affecting women’s workplace opportunities. Finally, it recommends measures to alter the divergent gender ...
Equality, Workplace, Gender, Culture, MeToo, #MeToo
151 - 154
Richard J Tarpey
Hospitals typically plan and allocate labor from a siloed, department focused perspective. This approach, however, does not align with the system perspective of patient movement through a hospital. This disconnect results in a breakdown of system feedback loops concerning labor planning and allocation resulting in sub-optimized results. A systemic, centralized approach to labor planning and all ...
Labor Staffing, Labor Scheduling, Hospital Labor Management, Performance Metrics
155 - 158
David C. Pickard
The purpose of this research is to examine the progressive and regressive factors that affect a small business owner’s decision to implement an exit strategy. An exit strategy can be defined as an entrepreneur’s strategic plan to sell his or her investment in a company he or she has controlling interest in. An exit strategy gives a business owner a way to reduce or eliminate his or her stake in th ...
Exit planning, Mergers and Acquisitions, small business, entrepreneurship
159 - 164

Volume 1, 2017


The Muma Business Review (MBR) is a new peer-reviewed open access journal specifically intended to serve the needs of both the practitioner-researcher. Its mission is to publish empirical findings and conceptual analyses that have been rigorously developed, that are communicated in a manner that is accessible to practicing managers and, most importantly, that address the real world challenges faci ...
Mission, authors, reviewers, editors, readers, policies
1 - 8
Robert W Hammond
There is no one best course through a Doctorate of Business Administration program but there are paths that maximize your time and value. Some people will wander through the research wilderness until having an epiphany, while others will treat the program like a journey-man and “do the work”, and still others will panic at the end of the third semester and “have to pick a topic for the dissertatio ...
Executive Education, DBA, Executive Learning, Active Learner, Life-long Learner
9 - 29
Troy Montgomery
Chris Kay, Humana’s Chief Innovation Officer, shared insights into the innovation decision-making process. Kay discussed specific strategies employed by Humana to bring consumer insights to action and he shared examples of the development of innovation ideas.
“The first, and most often wrong, question is, ‘How much is this worth?’” Chris Kay, the Chief Innovation Officer at the $50B health and we ...
Humana, Innovation, Disruptive Innovation, Co-creation, Chief Innovation Officer
31 - 38
Robert W Hammond
Firms struggle with transforming sales teams and sometimes resort to replacing sales people to accomplish business objectives. Sustainability theory provides a framework for analyzing the effects of replacing sales people for all stakeholders. By applying sustainability theory to sales transformation, managers can improve understanding of externalities and thus the total cost of the hiring circle.
Sales, Salespeople, Sustainability, Sustainable Development, Externalities, Hiring, Firing, Hiring Cycle, Transformation, Organization Change, Change Management
39 - 45
Robert W Hammond
Companies literally spend billions training sales people and yet continue to have problems transforming sales teams. In support of finding new approaches to this problem the following paper applies different theories to the problem and describes the results of a pilot survey conducted with sales teams in the Americas and Asia.
Sales, Innovation Diffusion, Motivation, Organization Change, Training, Change Management, Management
47 - 55
Gilbert Gonzalez
Is Entrepreneurship a skill to be trained, a natural ability, or both? Understanding the source of supply and/or the quantity supplied of entrepreneurs is crucial to encouraging new business creation.
Can a community increase the supply and/or quantity supplied of entrepreneurs through programs, training, stimulus, and regulatory change? It is generally agreed that small and medium sized busines ...
Nature, Nurture, Entrepreneur, Intrapreneur, Entrepreneurship, Intentions, Startup, Small And Medium Business (SME), Stimulus, Factors of Production, Jobs, Employment, Incubator, Small Business Development Center
57 - 67
Troy Montgomery
Organizations are constantly seeking ways to reinvent themselves through innovation. The process of selecting ideas in the early stages of innovation has a significant impact on the probability for success of new products or services. This paper investigates the critical factors organizations consider in the selection process.

Innovation management in organizations should be viewed in the conte ...
Decision-making, Idea Selection, Innovation, New Product, New Service, Selection Criteria
69 - 80
Gilbert Gonzalez
Using the Risk Analysis for Initial Needs (RAIN) planning model and its resource-based audit (RBA) tool to support the creation of a time zero startup business plan will improve the perceived value of the startup plan to founders and stakeholders by identifying gaps between the needs and availability of the needed resources at time zero.
The case has been made that successful startups are benefic ...
http://pubs.mumabusinessreview.org/2017/MBR-2017-081-095-Gonzalez-RAIN.pdf
81 - 95
Gilbert Gonzalez
A summary of a qualitative and quantitative investigation into what factors are present at time zero that increase the probability that a startup will achieve long term sustainability. The findings of this study will empower advisors and founders on how to improve startup survival rates.

Survival rates for startups in the United States (U.S.) are disappointingly low and economically inefficient ...
Accelerator., Business Canvas., Business Creation, Business Model, Business Plan, Incubator, Launch, Lean Canvas, Lean Strategy, Startup, Startup Business Plan, Strategy, Sustainability
97 - 114
Michiel Bosman, Joan Swart
Open Forest is a provider of online mental health self-help programs and, in this context, it is crucial to understand the needs of potential users. With a high prevalence of ADHD, user needs to establish commitment and loyalty centered on the ability to engage with others online.

Access of care, purported cost savings and convenience for both clients and healthcare professionals are but some ...
Amazon Mechanical Turk, Behavioral Research, Healthcare Management, Self-Help, Social Exchange Theory, Social Penetration Theory, Telemental Health
115 - 124
Richard J Tarpey
Labor cost is the single highest expense for hospitals. Rather than relying on new technology, this case study seeks to utilize Human Interaction Management to redesign work structure and process to improve labor forecasting and scheduling outcomes.

This study takes a distinctly unique approach to the hospital workforce planning (forecasting and scheduling) problem. The study is differentiated ...
Hospital Labor, Hospital Scheduling, Hospital Staffing, Human Interaction Management, Workload Demand Forecasting.
125 - 139
Clinton Daniel
In a study published in 2015 by Ganesan, Brantley, Pan, and Chen (Ganesan, Brantley, Pan, & Chen, 2015) researchers recognized that there is a problem with the search process when trying to visualize the correlation between a large collections of documents and a given set of topics. Chaney and Blei emphasize in a 2012 study the importance of science, industry, and culture to have the ability to ex ...
141 - 155
James E Fulford
During the initial literature review on this research question, areas of focus included the following:
• Current qualitative and quantitative methodologies for technology risk analysis.
• Business applications for expanding the use of qualitative and quantitative technology and security risk models.
• Implementation of qualitative and quantitative technology and security risk analysis methodolo ...
Quantitative Risk Models, Qualitative Risk Models, Risk Analysis, Risk Management, Technology Risk Management System.
158 - 169
Rebecca J Smith
Facilities management has become increasingly challenging over the years as facilities expand and the cost of construction increases, all while available funds continues to remain volatile. Deferred maintenance is a mounting problem that is insurmountable in some cases. Why is this the case and how did we get here?
Lack of funding, growth cycle, productivity, crisis, asset, facilities management, maintenance budget, priority, communication, knowledge, strategic plan
171 - 188
Gilbert Gonzalez
Academic researchers and practitioners disagree on the value and methodology of creating a startup plan. An analysis of the differences and the motivations of these two district communities gives insight into the challenges of planning a successful launch.
startup, startup plan, business plan, business creation, emerging business, SWOT, auditing, incubator, lean strategy, lean startup, founding, strategic management, early stage business, entrepreneur, entrepreneurship, accelerator, time zero plan, initial business plan
189 - 197
Rebecca J Smith
Facilities management has become increasingly challenging over the years. Given all that history has shown us regarding catastrophic failures due to a lack of maintenance, why do public facilities continue expanding at a rate that surpasses the ability and/or commitment to responsibly maintain them?
Lack of funding, growth cycle, productivity, crisis, asset, facilities management, maintenance budget, priority, communication, knowledge, strategic plan, outsource, technology, training
199 - 215
Rebecca J Smith
Based on both historic and current study, the industry of facilities management faces an ever growing challenge that puts our public assets at risk. The outcry for additional funding has become universal. Unfortunately, the federal and state governments delegate responsibility for funding solutions down to the local governments. The result; our public facilities are suffering chronic deferred m ...
Lack of funding, growth cycle, productivity, facilities management, maintenance budget, priority, communication, knowledge, strategic plan, technology, training, outsourcing
217 - 231
Desmond (Tres) Bishop
This article provides value to hiring managers and academics by positing a conceptual model that could potentially revitalize the methods employed to train, coach, interview and hire new college graduates. The model shows that success (measured as employee productivity) is the summation of education (hard skills) plus experience (time in one’s domain) plus soft skills. Each of the variables (empl ...
Soft Skills, Hard Skills, Employee Productivity, Education, Experience, Cost, Culture
233 - 239
Hugh Bettendorf
Economic Development Zones were created to reduce unemployment in depressed areas of the country. Different levels of government offer companies’ incentives to relocate to these areas or expand their business by creating Economic/Empowerment/Enterprise Zones. These incentives for relocating, expanding, or starting a business can be very lucrative for a company. Understanding why there is a disconn ...
Rural Enterprise Zone, Enterprise Zone, Economic Development District, Economic Development Strategy, Housing and Urban Development, Rural Development, Smart Rural Development, Rural Incubator, Empowerment Zone, Enterprise community, and Promise Zone.
241 - 249

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